The Toyota Prius is a full hybrid electric mid-size hatchback, formerly a compact sedan developed and manufactured by Toyota. The Epa and California Air Resources Board (Carb) rate the Prius as among the cleanest vehicles sold in the United States based on emissions of smog-forming. The Toyota Prius first went on sale in Japan in 1997, and was available at all Toyota Japan four dealerships, making it the first mass-produced hybrid vehicle. It was later introduced worldwide in 2000 The Prius is sold in almost 80 countries and regions, and its largest markets for those of Japan and the United States. Global cumulative Prius sales reached the milestone 1 million vehicle mark in May 2008, 2 million in September 2010, and passed the 3 million mark in June 2013 Cumulative sales 1 million Prii were achieved in the U.S. by early April 2011, and Japan reached the mark of 1 million in August 2011.
In 2011, Toyota expanded the Prius family to include the Toyota Prius v, an extended hatchback wagon, and the Prius c, a hatchback subcompact. The production version of the Prius plug-in hybrid released in 2012 The Prius family cumulative global sales reached 3.8 million units of by June 2013, representing 71.7% of Toyota hybrid sales of 5.3 million Lexus and Toyota units sold worldwide since 1997 Global sales of the Prius c and the family exceeded the 500,000 mark in August 2013, and sales led by Japan with 448.703 quasi, followed by the U.S. with 65.583 Prii c.
Toyota Prius Etymology and Terminology
Prius is a Latin word meaning “before”. According to Toyota, the name was chosen because the Prius was launched before environmental awareness became a mainstream social issue. In February 2011, Toyota asked the public to decide what is the most appropriate form plural of Prius should be, with choices including Prien, Prii, Prium, Prius or Priuses. The company said it would use its popular choice for advertising “and on February 20 announced that” Prii “was the most popular choice, and a brand new volume. In Latin prius is the neuter unity a comparative form (prior, prior, prius) of an adjective only to compare and admiration (the highest level being Primus, prima, primum), consequently, like all 3rd Zulu words, the plural in Latin Prior (compare Zulu Latin) was applied to the Lada Prior in 2007.
Since September 2011, Toyota USA began using the following names to distinguish the original Prius from some of the new members of the Prius family: the standard Prius into a Prius Liftback, the Prius v (known as the Prius in Japan, and Prius + in Europe), the Prius Plug- in Hybrid, and c Prius (called the Toyota Aqua in Japan).
Toyota Prius Design and Technology
The Prius is a power-split or series-parallel (full) hybrid, sometimes called hybrid combined, the car can be propelled by gasoline and / or electric power. Wind resistance is reduced by a Coefficient drag of 0.25 (0.29 for 2000 model) with a Kammback design to reduce air resistance. Using Lower rolling-resistance tires to reduce road friction. Electric water pump eliminates serpentine belts. US Canada, vacuum flask to store hot coolant when the car was powered off for the use and to reduce warm-up time. Prius engine using the Atkinson cycle.
Toyota Prius Fuel Economy
Since its founding, the Toyota Prius has been among the best fuel economy of the cars available in the United States, and model year 2012, the Prius family has three models among the 10 fuel-efficient cars top most sold in the country as measured by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (Epa) . After the first generation Honda Insight was discontinued in September 2006, the liftback Prius became the most fuel-efficient car sold in the American market, and even topped the Chevrolet volt December 2010, as the plug-in hybrid was rated by Epa with the overall combined city / highway fuel uphethiloli- energy economy of 60 mpg-US (3.9 L / 100 km; 72 mpg-imp) equivalent (mpg-e).
According to the Epa, model year 2012, and the gasoline-powered vehicles are considered (excluding the all-electric cars), the Prius c ranks as the most fuel-efficient compact car, the Toyota Prius hold up the back as the most fuel-efficient midsize car, and the Prius v as the most fuel-efficient midsize station wagon.
In 2008 the British government and the British media requested that Toyota release detailed statistics for energy use and CO2 emissions resulting from the construction and disposal of the Prius. Toyota has not provided the information requested data to the statements that address the use of lifetime energy of the Prius (including the increased environmental cost of the transfer and disposal of nickel-metal hydride battery) is outweighed by lower lifetime fuel consumption. Toyota claims the lives of all CO2 savings 37. As of 2010, the UK Government Car Service runs over 100 Prii, the largest part of the army and lists the Prius as low CO2 emissions among its fleet. CNW Marketing Research initially published a study to estimate the lifetime energy cost of a 2005 Prius greater than that of a Hummer. Widely cited study, but its contents have also been widely debunked: see for example “Hummer Versus Prius: ‘dust to dust’ Report misleading the Media and Public with Bad Science”
Toyota Prius Marketing and Culture
In the UK, the Advertising Standards Authority, an independent policing the rules of advertising, ruled that the television ad for the Toyota Prius should not be broadcast again in the same form, to break the rules concerning misleading advertising. Advertisement stated that the Prius “emits up to one CO2 tonne less per year”, and on-screen text included “1 tonne of CO2 less than a family car that matches with the diesel engine. Average calculated on 20,000 km a year.” Points of contention were the vehicles chosen for comparison, whether “‘up to’ one tonne less” adequately communicated to the prices would be lower, and the distance used was appropriate: 20,000 km per year is around U.S. car’s average annual driving distance, while the UK is a car 13,440 km.
The large number of Prius-owning progressive celebrities in 2002 prompted the Washington Post to Dub seed “the latest politically correct status symbol Hollywood’s”. Conservatives called the “Prius activists” and drive the cars because they want to contribute to the reduction of U.S. dependence on foreign oil. A 2007 San Francisco Chronicle article said “Progressives Prius” were becoming an archetype, with American conservative commentator Rush Limbaugh opining that “these liberals think they’re ahead of the game in these things, and you’re just suckers”.
In July 2007 The New York Times published an article using data from CNW Marketing Research finding that 57% of Toyota Prius buyers say that the main reason for their purchase was that “it makes a statement about me”, while just 37% cited fuel economy as a prime motivator. Shortly thereafter, Washington Post columnist Robert Samuelson coined the term “Prius politics” to describe the situation where the driver’s desire to ‘show off’ is a stronger motivator than the desire to curb greenhouse gas emissions. Some of the law is to encourage the use of a Toyota Prius and other hybrid cars. For example, Jim Road from What Would Jesus Drive? People were encouraged to drive hybrid cars because of the damage that large SUVs and cars faster you can do for others.